Ekonomi Lesu, Kredit Membisu

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Anjloknya harga karet dunia telah membuat para petani karet di dalam negeri terpukul. Harga karet mentah di dunia saat ini anjlok tajam menjadi sekitar US$ 1,5/kg atau setara dengan Rp 19.500/kg. Harga karet tersebut anjlok dalam dibandingkan dengan harga puncaknya di tahun 2011 yang mencapai angka US$ 4,6/kg atau setara dengan Rp 60.000/kg.

Penyebab Anjlok Harga Karet

Anjloknya harga karet dunia saat ini disebabkan oleh beberapa faktor fundamental. Faktor pertama menurut Kepala BPPT Unggul Priyanto dikarenakan harga minyak mentah dunia anjlok. Permintaan terhadap karet alamikalah oleh permintaan karet sintetis yang diproduksi dari bahan baku minyak mentah.

Sementara itu Staf Ahli Menteri Perdagangan Gusmardi Bustami mengatakan bahwa sejak harga karet dunia menembus level tertinggi beberapa tahun lalu, negara-negara produsen karet atau International Tripartite Rubber Council (ITRC) seperti Malaysia, Thailand dan Indonesia mulai bergeliat menaikkan produksi karet.

Selain ketiga negara tersebut, negara-negara lain seperti Kamboja, Laos, Myanmar dan Vietnam (CLMV) juga ikut mulai menggenjot produksi karet hingga akhirnya stok karet dunia berlebihan. Dampaknya harga karet di tingkat global pun akhirnya terdorong melemah.

Berdasarkan data IRSG (International Rubber Study Group) yang diolah Gabungan Perusahaan Karet Indonesia (Gapkindo) produksi karet alam dunia mencapai sekitar 12 juta metrik ton pada 2013, yang sekitar delapan juta berasal dari tiga anggota ITC yaitu Thailand (4,14 juta ton), Indonesia (3,08 juta ton), dan Malaysia (824 ribu ton). Sedangkan konsumsi karet alam dunia sekitar 11 juta ton.

Kelebihan pasokan itulah yang menyebabkan harga karet alam dunia anjlok, dan mendorong anggota ITRC berupaya mengatur pasokan mereka ke pasar dunia.

Dampaknya terhadap Petani Karet dalam Negeri

Akibat anjloknya harga karet para petani karet di kawasan penghasil utama karet Indonesia mengalami kesulitan dalam memenuhi kebutuhan hidup. Warga Desa Kace Kecamatan Mendobarat dan desa-desa sekitarnya mengalami saat-saat berat  karena bertani karet merupakan sandaran penghidupan utama masyarakat setelah berkurangnya aktifitas Tambang Inkonvesional (TI). Syarbani Kades Kace mengatakan bahwa bahkan pada saat krisis di tahun 1998 lalu kondisi petani karet di wilayahnya masih jauh lebih baik sebab saat itu harga karet dunia sedang tinggi.

Selain di Kace angka kemiskinan di Kabupaten Sintang,juga diprediksikan akan meningkat . Perkiraan ini didasarkan, tren menurunnya daya beli masyarakat. Sementara harga karet yang menurun bahkan anjlok. Sektor perkebunan dan pertanian menjadi tumpuan mayoritas masyarakat.

Aksi Pemerintah

Pemerintah sendiri tidak tinggal diam menyikapi lesunya harga karet yang merupakan salah satu komoditas unggulan dalam negeri. Pemerintah dalam hal ini Kementerian Perdagangan (Kemendag) akan memperbesar serapan produk karet alam di dalam negeri. Salah satunya akan diarahkan untuk produk pendukung pembangunan infrastruktur di Tanah Air. Antara lain, misalnya untuk dock vender dalam fasilitas pelabuhan, bahan campuran aspal jalan, bantalan jembatan kereta api, bendung karet untuk bendungan, atau komponen pintu irigasi untuk pengembangan rawa.

Rachmat Gobel mengatakan, upaya tersebut diharapkan dapat meningkatkan serapan dalam negeri hingga 100 ribu ton per tahun. Dengan demikian, penyerapan karet di dalam negeri diharapkan minimal bisa mencapai 700 ribu ton tahun ini.

Indonesia sendiri merupakan pemasok karet alam terbesar ke-2 di pasar dunia dengan total produksi karet alam sebesar 3,1 juta ton, dan kontribusi devisa senilai USD4,7 miliar pada 2014. Namun saat ini, penyerapan produk karet di dalam negeri baru 18%, sementara di negara lain sudah mencapai 40%. Jalan masih panjang untuk upaya hilirisasi industry karet.

Ika Akbarwati (selasar.com)

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